Exposing API Methods

This guide explains how to expose new API methods in the HTTP Reporting API by creating an API module. The Reporting API allows third party applications to access analytics data and manipulate miscellaneous data (such as users or websites) through HTTP requests.

What is it good for?

The Reporting API is used by the Piwik UI to render reports, to manage users, and more. If you want to add a feature to the Piwik UI, you might have to expose a method in the API to access this data. As the API is called via HTTP it allows you to fetch or manipulate any Piwik related data from anywhere. In these exposed API methods you can do pretty much anything you want, for example:

  • Enhance existing reports with additional data
  • Filter existing reports based on custom rules
  • Access the database and generate custom reports
  • Persist and read any data
  • Request server information

Adding a new API module

To create a new API, use the Piwik Console:

./console generate:api

The command will ask you to enter the name of the plugin the created API should belong to. There should now be a file plugins/MyPlugin/API.php with simple examples to get you started:

class API extends \Piwik\Plugin\API
{
    public function getAnswerToLife($truth = true)
    {
        if ($truth) {
            return 42;
        }

        return 24;
    }

    public function getExampleReport($idSite, $period, $date, $wonderful = false)
    {
        $table = DataTable::makeFromSimpleArray(array(
            array('label' => 'My Label 1', 'nb_visits' => '1'),
            array('label' => 'My Label 2', 'nb_visits' => '5'),
        ));

        return $table;
    }
}

Any public method in that file will be available via the Reporting API. For example the method getAnswerToLife can be called via this URL: index.php?module=API&method=MyApiPlugin.getAnswerToLife. The URL parameter method is a combination of your plugin name and the method name within this class.

Passing parameters to your method

Both example methods define some parameters. To pass any value to a parameter of your method simply specify them by name in the URL. For example ...&method=MyApiPlugin.getExampleReport&idSite=1&period=week&date=today&wonderful=1 to pass values to the parameters of the method getExampleReport.

Returning a value

In an API method you can return any boolean, number, string or array value. A resource or an object cannot be returned unless it implements the DataTableInterface such as DataTable (the primary data structure used to store analytics data in Piwik), DataTable\Map (stores a set of DataTables) and DataTable\Simple (a DataTable where every row has two columns: label and value).

Did you know? You can choose the response format of your API request by appending a parameter &format=JSON|XML|CSV|... to the URL. Check out the Reporting API Reference for more information.

DataTable vs Array

You might be wondering why not simply returning the array directly in the getExampleReport example? By wrapping it with a DataTable you will be able to use many features like filter_offset, filter_limit, filter_sort_column, showColumns and many more.

Best practices

Check user permissions

Do not forget to check whether a user actually has permissions to access data or to perform an action. If you're not familiar with Piwik's permissions and how to check them read our User Permissions guide.

Keep API methods small

At Piwik we aim to write clean code. Therefore, we recommend to keep API methods small (separation of concerns). An API pretty much acts like a Controller:

public function createLdapUser($idSite, $login, $password)
{
    Piwik::checkUserHasAdminAccess($idSite);
    $this->checkLogin($login);
    $this->checkPassword($password);

    $myModel = new LdapModel();
    $success = $myModel->createUser($idSite, $login, $password);

    return $success;
}

This is not only easy to read, it will also allow you to create simple tests for LdapModel (without having to bootstrap the whole Piwik layer) and you will be able to reuse it in other places if needed.

Calling other plugins' APIs

For example you want to fetch an existing report from another plugin - say a list of all Page URLs, do not request this report by calling that method directly: \Piwik\Plugins\Actions\API::getInstance()->getPageUrls($idSite, $period, $date);. Instead, issue a new API request:

$report = \Piwik\API\Request::processRequest('Actions.getPageUrls', array(
    'idSite' => $idSite,
    'period' => $period,
    'date'   => $date,
));

This has several advantages:

  • It avoids a fatal error if the requested plugin is not available on a Piwik installation
  • Other plugins can extend the called API method via events (adding additional report data to a report, doing additional permission checks) but those events will be only triggered when requesting the report as suggested
  • If the method signature changes, your request will most likely still work